RS Zelltechnik Brochures
The Optical Stretcher

Optical Stretcher Technology
Lincoln, B., Schinkinger, S., Travis, K., Wottawah, F., Ebert, S., Sauer, F., Guck, J., 2007. Reconfigurable microfluidic integration of a dual-beam laser trap with biomedical applications. Biomed. Microdevices 9, 703–710. doi:10.1007/s10544-007-9079-x
Ebert, S., Travis, K., Lincoln, B., Guck, J., 2007. Fluorescence ratio thermometry in a microfluidic dual-beam laser trap. Opt. Express 15, 15493–15499. doi:10.1364/OE.15.015493
Jensen-McMullin, C., Lee, H.P., Lyons, E.R.L., 2005. Demonstration of trapping, motion control, sensing and fluorescence detection of polystyrene beads in a multi-fiber optical trap. Opt. Express 13, 2634–2642. doi:10.1364/OPEX.13.002634
Wottawah, F., Schinkinger, S., Lincoln, B., Ananthakrishnan, R., Romeyke, M., Guck, J., Käs, J., 2005. Optical Rheology of Biological Cells. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 098103. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.098103
Lincoln, B., Erickson, H.M., Schinkinger, S., Wottawah, F., Mitchell, D., Ulvick, S., Bilby, C., Guck, J., 2004. Deformability-based flow cytometry. Cytometry A 59A, 203–209. doi:10.1002/cyto.a.20050

Theoretical Models
Ananthakrishnan, R., Guck, J., Wottawah, F., Schinkinger, S., Lincoln, B., Romeyke, M., Kas, J., 2005. Modelling the structural response of an eukaryotic cell in the optical stretcher. Curr. Sci. 88.
B. Bareil, P., Sheng, Y., Chiou, A., 2006. Local scattering stress distribution on surface of a spherical cell in optical stretcher. Opt. Express 14, 12503–12509. doi:10.1364/OE.14.012503
Bareil, P.B., Sheng, Y., Chen, Y.-Q., Chiou, A., 2007. Calculation of spherical red blood cell deformation in a dual-beam optical stretcher. Opt. Express 15, 16029–16034. doi:10.1364/OE.15.016029
Boyde, L., Ekpenyong, A., Whyte, G., Guck, J., 2012. Comparison of stresses on homogeneous spheroids in the optical stretcher computed with geometrical optics and generalized Lorenz–Mie theory. Appl. Opt. 51, 7934–7944. doi:10.1364/AO.51.007934
Ekpenyong, A.E., Posey, C.L., Chaput, J.L., Burkart, A.K., Marquardt, M.M., Smith, T.J., Nichols, M.G., 2009. Determination of cell elasticity through hybrid ray optics and continuum mechanics modeling of cell deformation in the optical stretcher. Appl. Opt. 48, 6344–6354. doi:10.1364/AO.48.006344
Teo, S.-K., Goryachev, A.B., Parker, K.H., Chiam, K.-H., 2010. Cellular deformation and intracellular stress propagation during optical stretching. Phys. Rev. E 81, 051924. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.81.051924

Cancer research and diagnostics
Kastl, L., Budde, B., Isbach, M., Rommel, C., Kemper, B., Schnekenburger, J., 2015. Optomechanical properties of cancer cells revealed by light-induced deformation and quantitative phase microscopy. pp. 952908–952908–6. doi:10.1117/12.2184764
Martin, M., Müller, K., Cadenas, C., Hermes, M., Zink, M., Hengstler, J.G., Käs, J.A., 2012. ERBB2 overexpression triggers transient high mechanoactivity of breast tumor cells. Cytoskeleton 69, 267–277. doi:10.1002/cm.21023
Fritsch, A., Höckel, M., Kiessling, T., Nnetu, K.D., Wetzel, F., Zink, M., Käs, J.A., 2010. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumour progression? Nat. Phys. 6, 730–732. doi:10.1038/nphys1800
Brunner, C., Niendorf, A., Käs, J.A., 2009. Passive and active single-cell biomechanics: a new perspective in cancer diagnosis. Soft Matter 5, 2171–2178. doi:10.1039/B807545J
Remmerbach, T.W., Wottawah, F., Dietrich, J., Lincoln, B., Wittekind, C., Guck, J., 2009. Oral Cancer Diagnosis by Mechanical Phenotyping. Cancer Res. 69, 1728–1732. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4073
Martin, M., Mueller, K., Wottawah, F., Schinkinger, S., Lincoln, B., Romeyke, M., Käs, J.A., 2006. Feeling with light for cancer. p. 60800P–60800P–10. doi:10.1117/12.637899
Guck, J., Schinkinger, S., Lincoln, B., Wottawah, F., Ebert, S., Romeyke, M., Lenz, D., Erickson, H.M., Ananthakrishnan, R., Mitchell, D., Käs, J., Ulvick, S., Bilby, C., 2005. Optical Deformability as an Inherent Cell Marker for Testing Malignant Transformation and Metastatic Competence. Biophys. J. 88, 3689–3698. doi:10.1529/biophysj.104.045476
Stem cell research
Ekpenyong, A.E., Whyte, G., Chalut, K., Pagliara, S., Lautenschlaeger, F., Fiddler, C., Paschke, S., Keyser, U.F., Chilvers, E.R., Guck, J., 2012. Viscoelastic Properties of Differentiating Blood Cells Are Fate- and Function-Dependent. Plos One 7, e45237. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0045237
Galle, J., Bader, A., Hepp, P., Grill, W., Fuchs, B., Kas, J.A., Krinner, A., MarquaB, B., Muller, K., Schiller, J., Schulz, R.M., von Buttlar, M., von der Burg, E., Zscharnack, M., Loffler, M., 2010. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cartilage Repair: State of the Art and Methods to monitor Cell Growth, Differentiation and Cartilage Regeneration. Curr. Med. Chem. 17, 2274–2291. doi:10.2174/092986710791331095
Maloney, J.M., Nikova, D., Lautenschlager, F., Clarke, E., Langer, R., Guck, J., Van Vliet, K.J., 2010. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanics from the Attached to the Suspended State. Biophys. J. 99, 2479–2487. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.08.052
Lautenschläger, F., Paschke, S., Schinkinger, S., Bruel, A., Beil, M., Guck, J., 2009. The regulatory role of cell mechanics for migration of differentiating myeloid cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 15696–15701 doi:10.1073/pnas.0811261106
Immune System
Man, S.M., Ekpenyong, A., Tourlomousis, P., Achouri, S., Cammarota, E., Hughes, K., Rizzo, A., Ng, G., Wright, J.A., Cicuta, P., Guck, J.R., Bryant, C.E., 2014. Actin polymerization as a key innate immune effector mechanism to control Salmonella infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 201419925 doi:10.1073/pnas.1419925111

Basic research
Schmidt, B.U.S., Kießling, T.R., Warmt, E., Fritsch, A.W., Stange, R., Käs, J.A., 2015. Complex thermorheology of living cells. New J. Phys. 17, 073010. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/17/7/073010
Chan, C.J., Ekpenyong, A.E., Golfier, S., Li, W., Chalut, K.J., Otto, O., Elgeti, J., Guck, J., Lautenschläger, F., 2015. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension. Biophys. J. 108, 1856–1869. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2015.03.009
Gladilin, E., Gonzalez, P., Eils, R., 2014. Dissecting the contribution of actin and vimentin intermediate filaments to mechanical phenotype of suspended cells using high-throughput deformability measurements and computational modeling. J. Biomech. 47, 2598–2605. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.05.020
Maloney, J.M., Vliet, K.J.V., 2014. Chemoenvironmental modulators of fluidity in the suspended biological cell. Soft Matter. doi:10.1039/C4SM00743C
Warmt, E., Kießling, T.R., Stange, R., Fritsch, A.W., Zink, M., Käs, J.A., 2014. Thermal instability of cell nuclei. New J. Phys. 16, 073009. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073009
Gyger, M., Stange, R., Kiessling, T.R., Fritsch, A., Kostelnik, K.B., Beck-Sickinger, A.G., Zink, M., Kaes, J.A., 2014. Active contractions in single suspended epithelial cells. Eur. Biophys. J. Biophys. Lett. 43, 11–23. doi:10.1007/s00249-013-0935-8
Seltmann, K., Fritsch, A.W., Käs, J.A., Magin, T.M., 2013. Keratins significantly contribute to cell stiffness and impact invasive behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 201310493. doi:10.1073/pnas.1310493110
Maloney, J.M., Lehnhardt, E., Long, A.F., Van Vliet, K.J., 2013. Mechanical fluidity of fully suspended biological cells. Biophys. J. 105, 1767–1777. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2013.08.040
Kießling, T.R., Stange, R., Käs, J.A., Fritsch, A.W., 2013. Thermorheology of living cells—impact of temperature variations on cell mechanics. New J. Phys. 15, 045026. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/15/4/045026
Kießling, T.R., Herrera, M., Nnetu, K.D., Balzer, E.M., Girvan, M., Fritsch, A.W., Martin, S.S., Käs, J.A., Losert, W., 2013. Analysis of multiple physical parameters for mechanical phenotyping of living cells. Eur. Biophys. J. 42, 383–394. doi:10.1007/s00249-013-0888-y
Paschke, S., Weidner, A.F., Paust, T., Marti, O., Beil, M., Ben-Chetrit, E., 2013. Technical advance: Inhibition of neutrophil chemotaxis by colchicine is modulated through viscoelastic properties of subcellular compartments. J. Leukoc. Biol. 94, 1091–1096. doi:10.1189/jlb.1012510
Chalut, K.J., Höpfler, M., Lautenschläger, F., Boyde, L., Chan, C.J., Ekpenyong, A., Martinez-Arias, A., Guck, J., 2012. Chromatin decondensation and nuclear softening accompany Nanog downregulation in embryonic stem cells. Biophys. J. 103, 2060–2070. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.10.015
Matthews, H.K., Delabre, U., Rohn, J.L., Guck, J., Kunda, P., Baum, B., 2012. Changes in Ect2 localization couple actomyosin-dependent cell shape changes to mitotic progression. Dev. Cell 23, 371–383. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2012.06.003
Mauritz, J.M.A., Esposito, A., Tiffert, T., Skepper, J.N., Warley, A., Yoon, Y.-Z., Cicuta, P., Lew, V.L., Guck, J.R., Kaminski, C.F., 2010. Biophotonic techniques for the study of malaria-infected red blood cells. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48, 1055–1063. doi:10.1007/s11517-010-0668-0
Rusciano, G., 2010. Experimental analysis of Hb oxy–deoxy transition in single optically stretched red blood cells. Phys. Med. 26, 233–239. doi:10.1016/j.ejmp.2010.02.001

Aging processes
Schulze, C., Wetzel, F., Kueper, T., Malsen, A., Muhr, G., Jaspers, S., Blatt, T., Wittern, K.-P., Wenck, H., Käs, J.A., 2010. Stiffening of Human Skin Fibroblasts with Age. Biophys. J. 99, 2434–2442. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2010.08.026

Delabre, U., Feld, K., Crespo, E., Whyte, G., Sykes, C., Seifert, U., Guck, J., 2015. Deformation of phospholipid vesicles in an optical stretcher. Soft Matter. doi:10.1039/C5SM00562K
Solmaz, M.E., Sankhagowit, S., Biswas, R., Mejia, C.A., Povinelli, M.L., Malmstadt, N., 2013. Optical stretching as a tool to investigate the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. Rsc Adv. 3, 16632–16638. doi:10.1039/c3ra42510j
Solmaz, M.E., Biswas, R., Sankhagowit, S., Thompson, J.R., Mejia, C.A., Malmstadt, N., Povinelli, M.L., 2012. Optical stretching of giant unilamellar vesicles with an integrated dual-beam optical trap. Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2419–2427. doi:10.1364/BOE.3.002419

Technical advances
Grosser, S., Fritsch, A.W., Kießling, T.R., Stange, R., Käs, J.A., 2015. The lensing effect of trapped particles in a dual-beam optical trap. Opt. Express 23, 5221–5235. doi:10.1364/OE.23.005221

Bellini, N., Bragheri, F., Cristiani, I., Guck, J., Osellame, R., Whyte, G., 2012. Validation and perspectives of a femtosecond laser fabricated monolithic optical stretcher. Biomed. Opt. Express 3, 2658–2668. doi:10.1364/BOE.3.002658
Bellini, N., Vishnubhatla, K.C., Bragheri, F., Ferrara, L., Minzioni, P., Ramponi, R., Cristiani, I., Osellame, R., 2010. Femtosecond laser fabricated monolithic chip for optical trapping and stretching of single cells. Opt. Express 18, 4679–4688. doi:10.1364/OE.18.004679